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Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(七)

Updated: Sep 1

新書上市-從NDA到營業秘密管理


◎賴文智律師


九、違約處理條款


有些客戶會詢問NDA如果沒有另外約定違約處理的條款,是不是違約就不需要負責任?其實不會,因為NDA本質也是一種合約,當發生違約情事時,除了可以依據NDA本身的違約條款處理外,也可以依據其所適用準據法國家的法律補充適用。例如:準據法如果是台灣的法律,就可以依據民法有關債務不履行的規定,請求損害賠償。因此,許多雙向的NDA可能會出現比較像是須擔保他方免於因違約等而受損害而應予賠償的條款,例如: Each Party shall indemnify and save and hold harmless the other Party for all damages, claims, liabilities and expenses arising out of any breach or failure to comply with any of the terms of this Confidentiality Agreement.


目前NDA在違約處理條款比較重要的反而是著重在於違約時,他方當事人可以採取聲請「injunction」(一般多譯為禁制令或禁止命令,接近我國定暫時狀態處分的概念)尋求保護的條款。這從台灣的智慧財產案件審理法第22條第2項規定來看可能比較容易理解,其規定,「聲請定暫時狀態之處分時,聲請人就其爭執之法律關係,為防止發生重大之損害或避免急迫之危險或有其他相類之情形而有必要之事實,應釋明之;其釋明有不足者,法院應駁回聲請。」違反NDA時,如果揭露方要聲請定暫時狀態處分,必須要先「釋明」有發生重大損害或急迫之危險,NDA中若直接約定雙方認知違反NDA會造成難以回復的損害,自然有機會作為一種向法院「釋明」的證據。


所以,我們經常可以看到NDA有下述的條款:Each party agrees and acknowledges that any breach of this Agreement may cause irreparable harm to the other party for which monetary damages may be inadequate. Accordingly, the harmed party may be entitled to seek injunctive or other equitable relief to remedy any threatened or actual breach of this Agreement by the other party.


另外一個經常被拿出來討論的就是「違約金」的條款,在雙向保密的NDA中,「違約金」的條款比較少見,因為雙方都會有點怕怕的,金額也不好拿捏。如果個案有需要的話,可以參考如下:Should any Party, deliberately or negligently, be in breach of any of the obligations under this Agreement, it shall pay a penalty in an amount of [ ] to the other Party for each breach. Said penalty leaves unaffected the demand for actual damages. 當然,還可以再細緻一點談如何計算違約的次數等,讀者們可以好好地應用Google找到適合的條款參考。


十、其他可能出現的條款

還有許多沒有被列出來,但可能讀者們在找NDA例稿時會看到的,以下舉幾種條款提供參考:


1.雙方並不因NDA的簽署而構成代理、合夥、共同投資等關係(Independent Action ),例如:Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to constitute an agency, partnership, joint venture, or other similar relationship between the Parties.


2.NDA的簽署未課予他方有交換機密資訊或進行買賣、授權等義務(No Obligation),例如:This Agreement imposes no obligation on a party to exchange Confidential Information or to purchase, sell, license, transfer or otherwise make use of any technology, services or products.


3.不得違反技術等出口禁令(Export Restrictions),像是長久以來被美方制裁的伊朗、北韓等,在美中貿易大戰中這類出口禁止違反的案例讓中國廠商吃盡苦頭,其條款如下:Confidential Information disclosed pursuant to this Agreement may include technology and/or software that is subject to export control laws or regulations of the United States and/or other countries, and with respect to which international transfers or releases to foreign nationals may be subject to restrictions, including export licensing requirements, whether or not identified by the Discloser. Any transfer or release of such Confidential Information hereunder shall be subject to all applicable U.S. and other export control laws and regulations. Without limiting the foregoing, the Receiving Party shall ensure that any further transfer or release of Confidential Information hereunder is conducted in accordance with applicable export licenses or regulatory exceptions.


請一併參閱:

新創公司營業秘密管理產品包 NTD 25,000

Step by Step建立企業營業秘密管理政策(一)

Step by Step建立企業營業秘密管理政策(二)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(一)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(二)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(三)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(四)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(五)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(六)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(七)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(八)

營業秘密盤點的方法

客戶提供制式的保密協議書,該注意哪些重點?

保密協議書中,該用「營業秘密」還是「機密資訊」?


圖文不符.Photo by 蕭家捷


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