• 益思團隊

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(四)

Updated: Feb 5

新書上市-從NDA到營業秘密管理


◎賴文智律師


三、接受方義務(保密義務)

NDA當然必須要約定保密義務啦!寫法有很多,通常至少要包括幾個要點,如:保密、不可以超出合作目的範圍外利用、僅得對符合特定條件的人士揭露等。


最簡單描述保密義務的方式,可能就只是要求機密資訊的揭露方,不得在特定目的之外為揭露或利用,例如:The Receiving Party shall not disclose or make use of the Confidential Information in any way, except for the following purpose: . 然而,這樣是不是感覺少了些什麼?一般可以再考慮加上:


1.注意義務的標準(Standard of Care) The Receiving Party shall protect the Confidential Information by using the same degree of care, but no less than a reasonable degree of care, to prevent the unauthorized use, disclosure, dissemination, or publication of the Confidential Information as The Receiving Party uses to protect its own Confidential Information of a like nature. 這樣的寫法相對我國民法有關過失的概念,如果沒有「no less than a reasonable degree of care」,比較接近具體的輕過失,就是必須盡與對自己所擁有的機密資訊相當的保密義務。當然,通常NDA不會主動把保護的標準降低,所以,通常會加上「no less than a reasonable degree of care」,這樣就相當於「善良管理人的注意義務」。


2.僅在必要範圍內揭露The Receiving Party shall not reproduce, provide, or otherwise make available any Confidential Information to any person other than those of its employees who have a need to know consistent with the Receiving Party's authorized use of such information. The Receiving Party agrees that it will take appropriate action by instruction or agreement with its employees and other persons permitted access to Confidential Information to satisfy its obligations with respect to the use, copying, security, and protection of the Confidential Information. 到底接受方可以把機密資訊提供或揭露給誰?客戶有時候非常謹慎,當我們請客戶把合約的完整內容提供給我們審閱時,客戶會很擔心的說,我們有簽保密協議,合約內容也是在保密的範圍,提供給律師審閱,是不是就違反保密協議了?一般的保密協議並不會把律師特別排除在可以揭露的範圍外,但確實有些保密的條款寫得非常簡單,簡單到好像只有簽約的二造當事人可以接觸機密資訊,但這顯然是不合理的?例如:如果二造當事人有糾紛,能不能讓律師審閱以評估風險?雖然說你不講,我不講,並不會有人知道律師看過,但這樣顯然就是沒有做合理的安排,我們在做NDA例稿時,當然不會犯這種錯,所以,就會有這樣的揭露的條款,通常我們選擇的就是「need to know」這樣的描述,也很常看到「on a need-to-know basis only」,都是類似的意思,比較有彈性。也有直接就直白地寫可以揭露給特定專業人員或董事,例如:「The Receiving Party may disclose confidential information to professional advisors, including lawyers, accountants and board members.」當然,也有非常嚴格的保密義務的約定,會要求任何接受方同意揭露或提供的第三人,都必須單獨與揭露方簽署保密協議,像是重要的電腦程式的原始碼,許多時候揭露方可能會選擇用這樣的方式來控管。但一般的NDA就比較少見。


3.須對其所同意揭露之人負責:既然接受方可以在「need to know」這樣的基礎下揭露機密資訊予其相關人等,那麼,這些人如果有洩密的情形,那該怎麼處理呢?一般我們會要求揭受方必須要為其所同意揭露的相關人等違反保密義務負起責任。例如:The Receiving Party shall be responsible for compliance with and for any breach by itself or its employees and Permitted Persons of all of the terms and covenants herein.有時候也可能寫得複雜一點,會要求接受方必須要採取一些措施要求這些接受機密資訊的人保密,再強調接受方必須為這些人違反保密條款負責。例如:The Receiving Party will inform each of its employees, agents, delegates, subsidiaries and affiliates (the "Representatives") who will receive Confidential Information of the obligations under this Agreement and agrees to take all commercially reasonable measures to restrain them from taking any action that would constitute a breach of the terms of this Agreement. In any event, the Receiving Party shall be responsible for any breach of the terms of this Agreement by any of its Representatives.


請一併參閱:

新創公司營業秘密管理產品包 NTD 25,000

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(一)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(二)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(三)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(四)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(五)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(六)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(七)

Step by Step建立企業英文的NDA範本(八)

營業秘密盤點的方法

客戶提供制式的保密協議書,該注意哪些重點?

保密協議書中,該用「營業秘密」還是「機密資訊」?


圖文不符.Photo by 蕭家捷


664 views